You, using your right hemisphere, know that what I mean is, could we have the door open? Could we put on the air conditioning? But your left hemisphere is wondering, meanwhile, why I'm supplying this quite unnecessary meteorological information. Because of its narrow focus, it doesn't see anything that isn't explicit. It only sees what's right in the center of the focus of attention. And it doesn't understand things that are not said. Often, that's as important as what is said.
The way in which it is said, my facial expression, my body language - all of this is lost, as well as the interpretation in the whole picture. For example, which is that the left hemisphere really is incapable of understanding what metaphor is or how it works. And that's no small thing because as some philosophers have pointed out, metaphor is how we understand everything.
And they point out that, actually, particularly scientific and philosophical understanding is mediated by metaphors. In other words, the only way we can understand something is in terms of something else that we think we already understand. And it's making the analogy, which is what a metaphor does, that enables us to go, I see, I get it.
Now, if you think that metaphor is just one of those dispensable decorations that you could add to meaning - it's kind of nice but probably a distraction from the real meaning - you've got it upside down. Because if you don't understand the metaphor, you haven't understood the meaning. Literal meaning, however, is a peripheral, diminished version of the richness of metaphorical understanding.
And what we know is the right hemisphere understands those implicit meanings, those connections of meanings, what we call connotations, as well as just denotations. It understands imagery.
It understands humor. It understands all of that. So it's very goal-driven but very short-term goal driven. It wants to grasp things that are within reach. Remember, the left hemisphere is what controls our right hand with which we grasp things that are within reach.
So it has a very direct, linear idea of a target and let's go and get it. In some ways, if I'm primarily focused on what's right in front of me, I don't really need to know what the last 2, years of history have taught me. Time can be seen rather like the flow of a river, which isn't made up of slices or chunks of river that are then put together. We, as personalities in time or cultures in time, are like this flow.
The left hemisphere can't deal with anything that is moving. It fixes things. It likes things to be fixed because then you can grab them. You can't grasp your prey, you can't pick up something unless you can at least immobilize it for that second while you're interacting with it.
So it doesn't like flow and motion, which are, in my view, basic to not just life but actually to the cosmos. So instead, it sees lots of little punctuate moments, little slices of time. And things have to be put together by adding them up. And calculus is an attempt, actually, to achieve something which is indivisible by dividing it in slices.
The left hemisphere prefers to reduce moral questions to arithmetic. An example is, a woman is having coffee with her friend. She puts what she thinks is sugar in her friend's coffee but it's in fact poison, and the friend dies. Scenario two, a woman is having coffee with her friend who she hates. She wants to poison her. And she puts what she thinks is poison in the coffee, but it's sugar, and the friend lives. Which was the morally worse scenario?
Now, all of us using our intact brains say, well, the one in which she intended to kill her friend. But no. If you disable the right hemisphere, the good old left hemisphere says, well, obviously, the one in which she died.
The consequence is what matters. So values are not well-appreciated, I think, by the left hemisphere. With its big-picture view of the world, the right hemisphere can see what the left hemisphere is doing, see the value that it produces.
But the left hemisphere, with its narrow view of reality, doesn't recognize the value of the right. In other words, the left hemisphere not only sees a narrow view of the world, it believes that the narrow view that it sees is all there is to see. Iain explains this through one exchange between a physician and a patient who experienced right hemisphere brain damage. Her left hemisphere is still intact. The patient has a strange belief about her own arm. We asked a couple of producers to read the exchange.
It's warmer than mine. The other day, too, when the weather was colder, it was warmer than mine. So if you have a left hemisphere stroke, so your right hemisphere still functioning, you're very aware of what deficits you have. If you have a right hemisphere stroke, you are completely unaware of there being anything wrong. So if you have a paralyzed left arm, which is often a consequence of right hemisphere stroke, more often than not you will deny that there's any problem with it.
If asked to move it, you will say there, but it didn't move. If, on the other hand, I bring it in front of you and say, whose arm is this, can you move it, they say, oh, that's not mine. That belongs to you, doctor, or to the patient in the next bed or, as in this cut, my mother. It's extraordinary because these are not people who in any way mad. They don't have a psychosis. But they're simply incapable of understanding that there is something wrong here that involves them. VEDANTAM: When we look at patients who have damage not now to the right hemisphere but to the left hemisphere, Iain, do we see a pattern in terms of how they behave, what deficits they have, what they're able to do?
It's really fascinating because the consequences are so obvious. You can't speak. And sometimes you can't appreciate the structure of a sentence that's being said to you. The other thing that happens is you can't use your right hand, which is a bit of a bummer if that's your important hand.
But effectively, the structure of reality is not changed. That's why it is easier to rehabilitate somebody after a left hemisphere stroke than after a right. The left hemisphere is the one that sees body parts whereas the right hemisphere is the one that sees the body as a whole.
It has something called a body image, which is not just a visual image but an integrated image from all senses of the body. But I've been looking at all the interesting neuropsychiatric syndromes, many of them described by Oliver Sacks, which follow brain damage.
And all these quite extraordinary delusional hallucinating syndromes that most people can hardly believe can happen to a human being happen either only or very largely after damage to the right hemisphere, not after damage to the left. So the succinct answer is the left hemisphere is to do with functioning and utilizing - reading, writing and grasping - and it doesn't really deal with the structure of reality whereas the right hemisphere does.
Are there emotions that tend to lateralize more to one hemisphere than the other? It reads emotional expression, and it gives emotional expressivity to a greater extent than the left. But it's not a simple matter. And some emotions to do with particularly understanding another person's point of view, what it feels like to be that person, are very profoundly connected with the right hemisphere. However, there are some emotions that are more particularly associated with the left hemisphere.
Perhaps the most striking one is anger, which happens to be the most lateralized of all emotions. And it lateralizes to the left hemisphere. So I think it's that the left hemisphere always has an immediate task because it wishes to accomplish. And if it encounters any opposition, it's dismissive, and it becomes enraged.
I mean, that's a simplification, but I think it works. And after a right hemisphere stroke, the range of emotions open to somebody is limited.
It's mainly irritability and anger. We've talked a little bit about learning a piece of music. I'm wondering if you can bring to mind a favorite piece of music that you return to every so often and describe to me what that would sound like if I only had my left hemisphere hearing it and I only had my right hemisphere hearing it. Well, part of the second movement of the Bach "Violin Concerto" would be a good place. It's a particularly beautiful piece.
For most of us, understanding and appreciating a melody, understanding and appreciating harmony and understanding and appreciating complex rhythm is all served by the right hemisphere.
And the bit that the left hemisphere gets is regular beat. It encourages you to think that there are separate notes. And so when we then listen to a piece of music, we think we're hearing separate notes. Actually, we're not. We're hearing an absolutely seamless flow in which we remember the notes that have just happened and we already anticipate where the notes are going to come next.
And to an extent, we need both. But for music, it really is mainly the right hemisphere. And there's a condition called amusia in which you either can't make sense of music or you cease to understand it. And that usually happens following a right hemisphere stroke.
When you're analyzing something, you're trying to take it apart. And you can analyze a great symphony. And you can analyze it, you know, by looking at the different instruments that are playing. Chief of Staff Craig, long an impediment to Air Corps ambitions but nearing retirement, came around to the Air Corps viewpoint after Roosevelt's views became public.
Likewise, the War Department General Staff reversed itself and concurred in the requirements, ending the brief moratorium on bomber development and paving the way for work on the B Over the winter of —, Arnold transferred a group of experienced officers headed by Lt. Carl A. Spaatz to his headquarters as an unofficial air staff [n 38] to lay out a plan that would increase the Air Corps to 50, men by June The expansion program of the Air Corps was characterized by repeated upward revision of goals for increasing aircraft production, combat unit totals, the training of new personnel, and construction of new bases.
New combat groups were created by detaching cadres from the existing 15 Regular groups to provide the core of the new units, with each older group providing the basis for an average of three new groups. Graduates of an expanded flight training program filled out the new groups and replaced the experienced personnel transferred from the older groups, resulting in a steady decline in the overall level of experience in the operational units.
Pearl Harbor. The initial Group Program for air defense of the hemisphere, developed in April , called for 50, men 12, pilots. Its ten new combat groups were activated on 1 February The General Staff again was unwilling to assign any of this work to the Air Corps, and instead detailed it to the overtaxed Quartermaster Corps. When the QMC failed to put new air bases in place in either an efficient or timely manner, the Corps of Engineers was then assigned the task, although it continued to implement the policies already in place.
By the time the Europeans went to war in September , the Americans first expansion lagged so distantly in relation to its goals in manpower and tactical aircraft that Andrews described the Air Corps as a "fifth rate air force. Moreover, the Luftwaffe had more personnel on the staffs of its headquarters and air ministry than were in the entire Air Corps 26, The first-line aircraft that would soon be considered obsolete were the B, A, and P The only first-line aircraft in that remained so during World War II was the B, and it had to be significantly modernized before it was combat-capable.
The acceleration of the expansion programs resulted in an Air Corps of installations of all types and , men by the end of The first delivery of BEs took place in November Procurement of aircraft remained a significant problem for the Air Corps until the eve of war, because of diversion of production to the Allies.
On 16 May , with the fall of France imminent, President Roosevelt delivered an address to Congress calling for a supplemental appropriation of nearly a billion dollars and the manufacture of 50, aircraft a year for the armed forces 36, of them for the Air Corps.
Eighteen months later the AAF still had only 3, combat aircraft only 1, overseas , and 7, non-combat aircraft, of which 6, were trainers. Arnold, at the direction of President Roosevelt in January , oversaw an expansion of the Air Corps that doubled it in size from 15 to 30 groups by the end of Delos C.
Emmons , Arnold was nominally assigned to "supervise" the tactical force but this did not resolve the divisions in command. On 5 October , Arnold drew up a proposal to reorganize the air arm along functional lines, creating an air staff, unifying the various organizations under one commander, and giving it autonomy with the ground and supply forces—a plan which was eventually adopted in March —and submitted it to Chief of Staff George C.
Marshall , but it was immediately opposed by the General Staff in all respects. Instead, the two organizations were separated again by a directive from Marshall on 19 November George H. Brett , acting Chief of the Air Corps, denounced the plan as "disastrous in war".
Emmons, who had begun his tour junior to Arnold, was promoted to lieutenant general to make him equal to the commanders of the field armies also controlled by Army GHQ. This forced him to report to and act under an inferior in rank both Arnold and Brett were major generals.
Even in the short run, however, coordination proved to be no substitute for unity of command. In the spring of , the combat successes of the British Royal Air Force and the German Luftwaffe under centralized control made clear that the fragmenting of authority in the American air arm had resulted in a dangerous lack of clear channels of command.
After a joint U. At this stage, support of airpower in public opinion reached unprecedented highs, increasing pressures from outside the military for an independent air arm with representation in the cabinet. Assured of a free hand by Marshall, Arnold thought that it would "be a serious mistake to change the existing setup" in the midst of the crucial expansion effort,  which in less than five years would be more than times its June size in personnel much of it highly trained technically alone.
By November, however, the division of authority within the Army as a whole caused by the activation of Army GHQ prompted Marshall to assert that he had "the poorest command post in the Army. Marshall appointed an Air Corps officer, Brig. Joseph T. Based on the recommendations of McNarney's committee, Roosevelt issued Executive Order , which changed Arnold's title to Commanding General, Army Air Forces effective 9 March , making him co-equal with the commanding generals of the other components of the Army of the United States.
In May , 88 percent of officers serving in the Army Air Forces were commissioned in the Air Corps, while 82 percent of enlisted members assigned to AAF units and bases had the Air Corps as their combat arm branch. Except for the assignment of four reconnaissance formerly observation squadrons to the 1st and 2nd Wings in September for attachment to their heavy bombardment groups, [n 48] and the May exchange of the 12th Observation Group inactivated for the 10th Transport Group activated , the organization of the Air Corps shown here remained essentially unchanged until activation of the first expansion groups on 1 February Andrews , Langley Field , Virginia.
Henry H. Arnold , March Field , California. Conger Pratt , Langley Field , Virginia. Gerald C. Brant, Barksdale Field , Louisiana. Delos Emmons , Fort Shafter , Hawaii [n 50]. William C. It continued to exist as one of the combat arms of the Army along with Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery, Corps of Engineers, and Signal Corps until abolished by reorganization provisions of the National Security Act of 61 Stat.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Air warfare branch of the US Army from to For the current active service branch, see United States Air Force. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled , that the Act entitled "An act for making further and more effectual provision for the national defense, and other purposes," approved June 3, , as amended, be, and the same is hereby, amended so that the Air Service referred to in that Act and all subsequent Acts of Congress shall be known as the Air Corps.
Main article: Military aircraft of the United States. Fox Conner and not for the first nor last time by General Staff opponents of Air Corps independence as a "promotion scheme". The Air Corps did not have a member promoted to permanent establishment general officer until , and he was promptly removed from the Air Corps.
Both he and Lahm served a single tour. Of the three assistant chiefs, Fechet succeeded Patrick in December , Gillmore retired on 30 June , and Lahm reverted to his permanent rank on 16 July General Drum also chaired the Drum Board, created specifically to oppose and revise plans and appropriation requests submitted by Chief of Air Corps Foulois that were not to the General Staff's liking. Stearley , who commanded the 13th Attack Squadron for four years as a 1st Lieutenant.
War plans involving Great Britain "Red" as an opponent were not officially excluded from United States war planning until January Maurer , p. Harold Stark insisted that the "proper" role of Army aviation in coastal defense was support of Navy operations. Coincidentally, Col. William L. Mitchell resigned from the service the day following its issuance. This dichotomy of regulations and principles ended in with the creation of field manuals.
Its report, submitted to Chief of Staff Marshall on 1 September , represented an Army-wide perspective. It became the basis for FM 1—5, and recognized that the United States was then on the strategic defensive.
Its view was conservative and "a considerable attenuation of air doctrine" as espoused by the ACTS. However it did correct the omissions of TR and reasserted that centralized control by an airman in any combat role was essential for efficiency. The Passing of an Eagle 6. The Mirror Maze I.
Inside the Mirror Maze II. Through the Mirror 7. Evil Devolution 8. The two Gates 9. Another Time, Another Space. Stormwind - Rising Symphony. Colaboradores Fucktricio leif. Luchando por algo mejor.
Descarga WinRar. Altamente recomendado. Publicado por leif en 8 comentarios, agrega el tuyo! Etiquetas: Holanda , Progressive Metal. Un disco doble que no puede faltar, un Progressive metal como ninguno. De las mejores propuestas del progressive actual. Ayreon - Tracklist: CD 1: 1. Age Of Shadows 2. Comatose 3. Liquid Eternity 4. Connect The Dots 5. Beneath The Waves 6. New Born Race 7. Ride The Comet 8. Web Of Lies CD 2: 1. The Earth Extinction 2. Waking Dreams 3. The Truth Is Here 4.
Unnatural Selection 5. River Of Time 6. EMC2 7. The Sixth Extinction Descarga pt. Publicado por leif en 3 comentarios, agrega el tuyo! La verdad es que no iba a hacerlo sin escuchar el disco. Si les gusta lo que descargan, compren el original. Un saludo y muchas gracias a los de Exordum por dejarlo!! Exordum - Exordum Demo Tracklist: Dance of Marionettes Empty Soul Lord Slayer Una excelente banda, con un sonido impecable.
Altamente recomendado! Publicado por leif en 1 comentarios, agrega el tuyo! Un disco que simplemente hay que escuchar. Mictlan - Ce Miquiztli Uno muere Tracklist: 1. Ce Miquiztli 2. Con Tu Llegada invasor 3. Gracias A Dios 4. Serpiente Celeste 5. Flores De Guerra 6. This is definitely worth checking out.
Oh, did I mention that they tour with a flamenco dancer? Let that drift into your imagination. Metal and flamenco guitar? Who would have thought? Flametal combines both in a skilled and interesting combination. There's a lot to enjoy on this album, especially if you can get over the near dirty vocals.
On the name promotion list for colonel inon which Kilbourne had been 76th, the first Όπου Και Να μαι Θα μαι - Γιώργος Ανδρέου - Κοιτάζοντας Πίσω later Chief of Air Corps James Fechet had been th. Archived from the original on 5 June Aqme - Sombres Efforts Foulois Maj. After a Frango a Morto - Lead Coffin - Contra el Eje del Mal U. And after years of expensive electron microscopy, I can inform you that music is made up of notes. Log Johnny On The Warpath - Johnny Rivera And The Tequila Brass - Up, Up And Away. The Catcher Henry H.
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