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Amar and Mazzone anticipate that even in the unlikely event that this lawsuit reaches the Supreme Court, any fundamental changes to existing affirmative action doctrine would likely require the Court to weigh in on multiple cases over an extended period. Illinois law dean Vikram David Amar and professor Jason Mazzone continue their discussion of whether law reviews may take race and gender into account in selecting members and articles. In this second of a three-part series of columns, Amar and Mazzone analyze some of the key substantive arguments made by the plaintiff in the lawsuit.

Amar points out the legal limitations to some proposed solutions and argues that the law should adapt to a changing world to allow universities more options to craft data-informed and viewpoint-neutral policies. In this first of a series of columns, Illinois law dean Vikram David Amar and professor Jason Mazzone comment on a legal challenge to the practice by Harvard Law Review of taking into consideration race, gender, and other demographic factors when making membership decisions.

Amar and Mazzone highlight some of the hurdles the challenger faces in establishing standing— the right to have the dispute heard in a federal forum. Colb explains how the Enhanced Assess, Acknowledge, Act EAAA program might help change the way we think about acquaintance rape and reduce the incidence of such rape and other similar sexual crimes.

Colb points out some of the shortcomings of consent-focused education about rape and describes how EAAA addresses many of these shortcomings. Dorf provides a history of Title IX, explaining how the Obama administration issued guidance and instituted reforms to how institutions should approach addressing allegations of such conduct.

He acknowledges the Department of Education's shift in policy under the Trump administration that led to its proposed rulemaking issuance, and argues that the Department only has the authority to permit these additional due process protections in most instances, rather than outright require institutions to adhere to them.

Colb observes that we as a society have become extremely credulous for an era of cynicism and that we as individuals have divested ourselves of critical judgment, preferring instead to defer to people who share our political ideology or qualify for special status for some other reason.

Colb considers what might be driving this deference and how we can combat it. Colb points out that there is no reliable evidence that the warnings work as advertised; rather, they might actually do more harm than good.

Colb concludes that an education necessarily means encountering ideas and theories that do not sit well with what one already believes, and students should not have the right to skip days or receive warnings when professors will be talking about unwelcome facts or theories. Cornell University law professor Joseph Margulies relates the story of one young man whose early life experiences and mistakes landed him in prison but who, after excelling in the Cornell Prison Education Program—a program in which Cornell professors teach university classes to prisoners—was released on parole after his first parole hearing and now attends Cornell University as a student.

Spain , 3. Sweden , 4. Germany , 5. Finland , 6. Poland , 7. Italy , 8. Romania , 9. Greece , Bulgaria , Hungary 93, Portugal 92, Austria 83, Czechia 78, Ireland 70, Lithuania 65, Latvia 64, Croatia 56, Slovakia 49, Estonia 45, Denmark 43, Netherlands 41, Belgium 30, Slovenia 20, Cyprus 9, Luxembourg 2, Malta Area - comparative:.

Land boundaries:. Natural resources:. Irrigated land:. Population distribution:. Natural hazards:. Environment - current issues:. Environment - international agreements:. People and Society :: European Union. Age structure:. Europe :: European Union Print. Image Description. This is the population pyramid for the European Union. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development.

The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top.

The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab. Median age:. Population growth rate:. Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study. Kant I. Predescu V. In: Constanta Parhon-Stefanescu ed.

Lectii de Psihiatrie. Bucharest: Institutul Medico Farmaceutic; Psihozele de involutie sau psihozele care apar in legatura cu modificarile organismului in functie de varsta; pp. Sjogren T, Larsson T. The changing age-structure in Sweden and its impact on mental illness. Bull World Health Organ. The genetics of frontotemporal dementia. Neurol Clin. Graham A, Hodges J. Frontotemporal dementia. How many dementia cases in France and Europe?

Alternative projections and scenarios Eur J Neurol. Grigoriu-Serbanescu M. Variatia numarului de copii in tulburarile psihice Copy number variation in psychiatric disease Ann Univ Oradea - Fascicola Medicala. Projections of Alzheimer's disease in the United States and the public health impact of delaying disease onset.

Am J Public Health. Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. Mayeux R, Stern Y. Epidemiology of Alzheimer disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. Cornutiu G. The incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer's disease. Neurodegener Dis. Trends in the incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and cognitive impairment in the United States. Alzheimers Dement.

Doodys R. Amyloid precursor protein processing and A beta42 deposition in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease. Cummings JF. Jorm AF. Cross-national comparisons of the occurrence of Alzheimer's and vascular dementias.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. Incidence of dementia and probable Alzheimer's disease in a general population: the Framingham Study. Incidence of very mild to severe dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Denmark: the Odense Study. Canadian Alzheimer Society, Incidence rates of Alzheimer disease; Trends in prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in a Japanese community: the Hisayama Study.

Acta Psychiatr Scand. Incidence and risk factors of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a defined elderly Japanese population: the Hisayama Study. Forecasting the global burden of Alzheimer's disease.

Dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a new direction. The Jay L. Foster Memorial Lecture. Incidence of dementia and Alzheimer disease in 2 communities: Yoruba residing in Ibadan, Nigeria, and African Americans residing in Indianapolis, Indiana. Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: association with education. The Rotterdam study. Evans DA. Estimated prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in the United States.

Milbank Q. The US economic and social costs of Alzheimer's disease revisited. Profiles of Alzheimer's disease-related pathology in an aging urban population sample in India. J Alzheimers Dis. Alzheimer disease in the US population: prevalence estimates using the census. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: a reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, BMC Neurol. Nat Rev Neurol. The National Institute of Health. Brookmeyer R, Gray S.

Methods for projecting the incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases in aging populations: application to Alzheimer's disease. Stat Med. Epidemiology of the dementias: recent developments and new approaches. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Should mild cognitive impairment be subtyped? Curr Opin Psychiatry. Outcomes of mild cognitive impairment by definition: a population study.

Mild cognitive impairment: incidence and vascular risk factors in a population-based cohort. Senile dementia: a Clinical, sociomedical, and genetic study. The prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Shanghai, China: impact of age, gender, and education. Ann Neurol. Hardy J. Amyloid, the presenilins and Alzheimer's disease.

Trends Neurosci. St George-Hyslop PH. Molecular genetics of Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry. Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with pre-stroke and post-stroke dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cdk5 is involved in NFT-like tauopathy induced by transient cerebral ischemia in female rats. Biochim Biophys Acta. Jellinger KA. The pathology of ischemic-vascular dementia: an update. J Neurol Sci. The association between low diastolic blood pressure in middle age and cognitive function in old age.

A population-based study. Age Ageing. Midlife cardiovascular risk factors and risk of dementia in late life. Kopf D, Frolich L. Risk of incident Alzheimer's disease in diabetic patients: a systematic review of prospective trials. Constantine pursued successful campaigns against the tribes on the Roman frontiers —the Franks , the Alamanni , the Goths , and the Sarmatians —even resettling territories abandoned by his predecessors during the Crisis of the Third Century.

Constantine was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. He played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in , which declared religious tolerance for Christianity in the Roman empire. He called the First Council of Nicaea in , which produced the statement of Christian belief known as the Nicene Creed.

He has historically been referred to as the "First Christian Emperor", and he did heavily promote the Christian Church. Some modern scholars, however, debate his beliefs and even his comprehension of the Christian faith itself. The age of Constantine marked a distinct epoch in the history of the Roman Empire. It became the capital of the Empire for more than a thousand years, with the later eastern Roman Empire, now being referred to as the Byzantine Empire by historians.

His more immediate political legacy was that he replaced Diocletian 's tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession by leaving the empire to his sons. His reputation flourished during the lifetime of his children and for centuries after his reign.

The medieval church upheld him as a paragon of virtue, while secular rulers invoked him as a prototype, a point of reference, and the symbol of imperial legitimacy and identity. Trends in modern and recent scholarship have attempted to balance the extremes of previous scholarship. Constantine was a ruler of major importance, and he has always been a controversial figure.

These are abundant and detailed, [10] but they have been strongly influenced by the official propaganda of the period [11] and are often one-sided; [12] no contemporaneous histories or biographies dealing with his life and rule have survived. Lactantius ' De Mortibus Persecutorum , a political Christian pamphlet on the reigns of Diocletian and the Tetrarchy , provides valuable but tendentious detail on Constantine's predecessors and early life.

The epitomes of Aurelius Victor De Caesaribus , Eutropius Breviarium , Festus Breviarium , and the anonymous author of the Epitome de Caesaribus offer compressed secular political and military histories of the period. Although not Christian, the epitomes paint a favourable image of Constantine but omit reference to Constantine's religious policies. Being described as a tolerant and politically skilled man, [36] Constantius advanced through the ranks, earning the governorship of Dalmatia from Emperor Diocletian , another of Aurelian's companions from Illyricum , in or Each emperor would have his own court, his own military and administrative faculties, and each would rule with a separate praetorian prefect as chief lieutenant.

The division was merely pragmatic: the empire was called "indivisible" in official panegyric, [41] and both emperors could move freely throughout the empire. Constantius left Helena to marry Maximian's stepdaughter Theodora in or Each would be subordinate to their respective augustus senior emperor but would act with supreme authority in his assigned lands. This system would later be called the Tetrarchy.

Diocletian's first appointee for the office of caesar was Constantius; his second was Galerius , a native of Felix Romuliana. According to Lactantius, Galerius was a brutal, animalistic man. Although he shared the paganism of Rome's aristocracy, he seemed to them an alien figure, a semi-barbarian. Constantine went to the court of Diocletian, where he lived as his father's heir presumptive.

Constantine's parents and siblings, the dates in square brackets indicate the possession of minor titles. Constantine received a formal education at Diocletian's court, where he learned Latin literature, Greek, and philosophy. He may have attended the lectures of Lactantius, a Christian scholar of Latin in the city. In the months that followed, churches and scriptures were destroyed, Christians were deprived of official ranks, and priests were imprisoned.

It is unlikely that Constantine played any role in the persecution. On 1 May AD, Diocletian, as a result of a debilitating sickness taken in the winter of — AD, announced his resignation. In a parallel ceremony in Milan , Maximian did the same. According to Lactantius, the crowd listening to Diocletian's resignation speech believed, until the very last moment, that Diocletian would choose Constantine and Maxentius Maximian's son as his successors.

Constantine and Maxentius were ignored. Some of the ancient sources detail plots that Galerius made on Constantine's life in the months following Diocletian's abdication.

They assert that Galerius assigned Constantine to lead an advance unit in a cavalry charge through a swamp on the middle Danube, made him enter into single combat with a lion, and attempted to kill him in hunts and wars. Constantine always emerged victorious: the lion emerged from the contest in a poorer condition than Constantine; Constantine returned to Nicomedia from the Danube with a Sarmatian captive to drop at Galerius' feet. Constantine recognized the implicit danger in remaining at Galerius' court, where he was held as a virtual hostage.

His career depended on being rescued by his father in the west. Constantius was quick to intervene. After a long evening of drinking, Galerius granted the request. Constantine's later propaganda describes how he fled the court in the night, before Galerius could change his mind. He rode from post-house to post-house at high speed, hamstringing every horse in his wake. From Bononia, they crossed the Channel to Britain and made their way to Eboracum York , capital of the province of Britannia Secunda and home to a large military base.

Constantine was able to spend a year in northern Britain at his father's side, campaigning against the Picts beyond Hadrian's Wall in the summer and autumn. Before dying, he declared his support for raising Constantine to the rank of full augustus. The Alamannic king Chrocus , a barbarian taken into service under Constantius, then proclaimed Constantine as augustus. The troops loyal to Constantius' memory followed him in acclamation.

Gaul and Britain quickly accepted his rule; [71] Hispania , which had been in his father's domain for less than a year, rejected it. Constantine sent Galerius an official notice of Constantius' death and his own acclamation. Along with the notice, he included a portrait of himself in the robes of an augustus. His advisers calmed him, and argued that outright denial of Constantine's claims would mean certain war.

Constantine's share of the Empire consisted of Britain, Gaul, and Spain, and he commanded one of the largest Roman armies which was stationed along the important Rhine frontier. He completed the reconstruction of military bases begun under his father's rule, and he ordered the repair of the region's roadways.

Constantine began a major expansion of Trier. He strengthened the circuit wall around the city with military towers and fortified gates, and he began building a palace complex in the northeastern part of the city. To the south of his palace, he ordered the construction of a large formal audience hall and a massive imperial bathhouse.

He sponsored many building projects throughout Gaul during his tenure as emperor of the West, especially in Augustodunum Autun and Arelate Arles. He probably judged it a more sensible policy than open persecution [87] and a way to distinguish himself from the "great persecutor" Galerius. Constantine was largely untried and had a hint of illegitimacy about him; he relied on his father's reputation in his early propaganda, which gave as much coverage to his father's deeds as to his. He minted a coin issue after his victory over the Alemanni which depicts weeping and begging Alemannic tribesmen, "the Alemanni conquered" beneath the phrase "Romans' rejoicing".

Following Galerius' recognition of Constantine as caesar, Constantine's portrait was brought to Rome, as was customary. Maxentius mocked the portrait's subject as the son of a harlot and lamented his own powerlessness.

Galerius refused to recognize him but failed to unseat him. Galerius sent Severus against Maxentius, but during the campaign, Severus' armies, previously under command of Maxentius' father Maximian, defected, and Severus was seized and imprisoned. He offered to marry his daughter Fausta to Constantine and elevate him to augustan rank. In return, Constantine would reaffirm the old family alliance between Maximian and Constantius and offer support to Maxentius' cause in Italy.

Constantine now gave Maxentius his meagre support, offering Maxentius political recognition. Constantine remained aloof from the Italian conflict, however. Over the spring and summer of AD, he had left Gaul for Britain to avoid any involvement in the Italian turmoil; [98] now, instead of giving Maxentius military aid, he sent his troops against Germanic tribes along the Rhine. In AD, he marched to the northern Rhine and fought the Franks. When not campaigning, he toured his lands advertising his benevolence and supporting the economy and the arts.

His refusal to participate in the war increased his popularity among his people and strengthened his power base in the West. On 11 November AD, Galerius called a general council at the military city of Carnuntum Petronell-Carnuntum , Austria to resolve the instability in the western provinces. In attendance were Diocletian, briefly returned from retirement, Galerius, and Maximian. Maximian was forced to abdicate again and Constantine was again demoted to caesar.

Licinius , one of Galerius' old military companions, was appointed augustus in the western regions. The new system did not last long: Constantine refused to accept the demotion and continued to style himself as augustus on his coinage, even as other members of the Tetrarchy referred to him as a caesar on theirs.

Maximinus Daia was frustrated that he had been passed over for promotion while the newcomer Licinius had been raised to the office of augustus and demanded that Galerius promote him. Galerius offered to call both Maximinus and Constantine "sons of the augusti", [] but neither accepted the new title.

In AD, a dispossessed Maximian rebelled against Constantine while Constantine was away campaigning against the Franks. Maximian had been sent south to Arles with a contingent of Constantine's army, in preparation for any attacks by Maxentius in southern Gaul.

He announced that Constantine was dead, and took up the imperial purple. In spite of a large donative pledge to any who would support him as emperor, most of Constantine's army remained loyal to their emperor, and Maximian was soon compelled to leave. Constantine soon heard of the rebellion, abandoned his campaign against the Franks, and marched his army up the Rhine.

He disembarked at Lugdunum Lyon. It made little difference, however, as loyal citizens opened the rear gates to Constantine. Maximian was captured and reproved for his crimes. Constantine granted some clemency, but strongly encouraged his suicide. In July AD, Maximian hanged himself. In spite of the earlier rupture in their relations, Maxentius was eager to present himself as his father's devoted son after his death.

According to this, after Constantine had pardoned him, Maximian planned to murder Constantine in his sleep. Fausta learned of the plot and warned Constantine, who put a eunuch in his own place in bed.

Maximian was apprehended when he killed the eunuch and was offered suicide, which he accepted. The death of Maximian required a shift in Constantine's public image. He could no longer rely on his connection to the elder Emperor Maximian, and needed a new source of legitimacy. Breaking away from tetrarchic models, the speech emphasizes Constantine's ancestral prerogative to rule, rather than principles of imperial equality.

The new ideology expressed in the speech made Galerius and Maximian irrelevant to Constantine's right to rule. The oration also moves away from the religious ideology of the Tetrarchy, with its focus on twin dynasties of Jupiter and Hercules. Instead, the orator proclaims that Constantine experienced a divine vision of Apollo and Victory granting him laurel wreaths of health and a long reign. In the likeness of Apollo, Constantine recognized himself as the saving figure to whom would be granted "rule of the whole world", [] as the poet Virgil had once foretold.

In his early reign, the coinage of Constantine advertised Mars as his patron. By the middle of AD, Galerius had become too ill to involve himself in imperial politics. A hasty peace was signed on a boat in the middle of the Bosphorus. Maxentius' rule was nevertheless insecure. His early support dissolved in the wake of heightened tax rates and depressed trade; riots broke out in Rome and Carthage ; [] and Domitius Alexander was able to briefly usurp his authority in Africa. He declared war on Constantine, vowing to avenge his father's "murder".

Maximinus considered Constantine's arrangement with Licinius an affront to his authority. In response, he sent ambassadors to Rome, offering political recognition to Maxentius in exchange for a military support. Maxentius accepted.

There was "not a place where people were not expecting the onset of hostilities every day". Constantine's advisers and generals cautioned against preemptive attack on Maxentius; [] even his soothsayers recommended against it, stating that the sacrifices had produced unfavourable omens. Constantine ordered his men to set fire to its gates and scale its walls. He took the town quickly. Constantine ordered his troops not to loot the town, and advanced with them into northern Italy.

At the approach to the west of the important city of Augusta Taurinorum Turin , Italy , Constantine met a large force of heavily armed Maxentian cavalry. Constantine's armies emerged victorious. He moved on to Milan, where he was met with open gates and jubilant rejoicing. Brescia's army was easily dispersed, [] and Constantine quickly advanced to Verona , where a large Maxentian force was camped. Constantine sent a small force north of the town in an attempt to cross the river unnoticed.

Ruricius sent a large detachment to counter Constantine's expeditionary force, but was defeated. Constantine's forces successfully surrounded the town and laid siege.

Constantine refused to let up on the siege, and sent only a small force to oppose him. In the desperately fought encounter that followed, Ruricius was killed and his army destroyed. Maxentius prepared for the same type of war he had waged against Severus and Galerius: he sat in Rome and prepared for a siege. He ordered all bridges across the Tiber cut, reportedly on the counsel of the gods, [] and left the rest of central Italy undefended; Constantine secured that region's support without challenge.

The keepers prophesied that, on that very day, "the enemy of the Romans" would die. Maxentius advanced north to meet Constantine in battle. Maxentius' forces were still twice the size of Constantine's, and he organized them in long lines facing the battle plain with their backs to the river. Constantine deployed his own forces along the whole length of Maxentius' line. He ordered his cavalry to charge, and they broke Maxentius' cavalry.

He then sent his infantry against Maxentius' infantry, pushing many into the Tiber where they were slaughtered and drowned. Maxentius rode with them and attempted to cross the bridge of boats Ponte Milvio , but he was pushed into the Tiber and drowned by the mass of his fleeing soldiers.

Constantine entered Rome on 29 October AD, [] [] and staged a grand adventus in the city which was met with jubilation. An extensive propaganda campaign followed, during which Maxentius' image was purged from all public places.

He was written up as a "tyrant" and set against an idealized image of Constantine the "liberator". Eusebius is the best representative of this strand of Constantinian propaganda.


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